Wednesday, July 16, 2008

Glossary of Hardware A~K

Note:we collected this list of terminology from the internet or the industry.Hope it be useful to you

Abrasive - Hard granular material of varying fineness, used in grinding and/or polishing, or incorporated with metal to provide a non-slip surface.
Active Door (in a pair of doors) - The leaf that opens first and the one to which the lock is applied.

Adjustable Key - A key for sliding door locks, having a stem or adjustable shank to adjust the key to doors of various thicknesses.

Alloy - The combination of two or more metal elements to achieve special strength, hardness of appearance characteristics.

Anneal - To heat metal, glass or other materials above the critical or re-crystallization temperature, then cool, to eliminate the effects of color working, relieve internal stresses or improve electrical, magnetic or other properties.

Anodic Coating - The surface finish resulting from anodizing. See Anodize.

Anodize - To provide a non-corrosive oxide film on the surface of a metal, particularly aluminum by electrochemical action.

Anti-Friction Bearing - Bearing used in a hinge for the purpose of reducing friction and improving efficiency. Normally balls, oil-impregnated or other anti-friction material is used.

Anti-Friction Latchbolt - The latchbolt of a lock that has been equipped with a device for lessening friction between bolt and strike. May be a small trigger attached to the bolt that contacts the strike and exerts a lever action to depress the bolt (three-piece latchbolt). May also be a latchbolt with some form of nylon insert or surface.

Arch - A curved structure that carries the weight over an opening.

Architect - A person who plans buildings and oversees their construction.

Architectural Finish Hardware - Functional hardware with a finished appearance. A part of the decorative treatment of the building and its rooms.

Armored Front - An additional front, applied to the regular front of a lock by machine screws, which protects the cylinder set screws, so that they cannot be loosened without removing the armored front. The armored front need not be applied until after the door has been painted, thus giving the additional advantage of preserving the finish during painting operations.

Astragal - A member of combination of members applied to one or both doors of a pair at their meeting edges. The astragal closes the clearance gap for the purpose of either providing a weather seal, minimizing the passage of light between the doors or retarding the passage of smoke or flame during a fire. Some types overlay, others meet at the centerline of the gap (sometimes referred to as a "split astragal").

Auxiliary Deadlatch - A supplementary latch, which, when the door is closed, automatically deadlocks the latchbolt against end pressure. It does not interfere with the normal operation of the lock.

Auxiliary Lock - A lock having a latchbolt or a deadbolt operated by a key or a thumbturn, or both. This lock often is used in addition to another lock, which may or may not be key operated, but which has a latchbolt operated by knobs or levers.


Backcheck - Optional feature in hydraulic door closers, which takes effect at a certain degree of opening and controls the speed of the door during the balance of its opening cycle.

Backfill - Earth replaced around a foundation.

Backset (of a lock) - A term used in referring to the horizontal distance from the face of the lock to the centerline of the cylinder, keyhole or knob hub. On locks with beveled fronts, this distance is measured from the center of the lock edge. On locks with rabbeted fronts it is measured from the lower step of the center of the lock face.

Balcony - A platform projecting from the wall of a building, above the ground.

Ball-Bearing hinge - A hinge equipped with ball bearings between the hinge knuckles to reduce friction.

Barrel Key - A key with a round shank and wing bit. The shank has a hole in the end, which is inserted in the lock. Used chiefly for cabinet locks.

Barrel - That portion of a hinge that is enlarged to receive the pin and act as the pivot point. It includes one or more knuckles from each individual leaf.

Baseboard - The finishing board covering a wall where it meets the floor.

Basement - The lowest story of a building partially or entirely below ground.

Batten - A strip of board for use in fastening other boards together.

Beam - A horizontal structural member that carries a load.

Bearing Partition - A partition supporting any vertical load in addition to its own weight.

Benchmark - A reference point used by surveyors to establish lines and grades.

Bevel of Door - The angle of the edge of the door in relation to the inside and outside surfaces of the stile. Thin doors are not usually beveled. The commonly used bevel for heavier doors is 1/8" in 2". (A beveled edge on a thick door is necessary for a close fit when the door is closed because of the arched swing of the door.)

Bit Key - A key with a solid cylinder shank, stem and wing bit. The wing bit may be tapered, flat or curved. Bit keys are available in a variety of sizes.

Baiting - A number that represents a depth of a cut on a pin tumbler-type key. A baiting is often expressed as a series of numbers and/or letters that designate all the cuts on a key.

Bi-Fold - Folding doors consisting or pairs of door panels, which fold out of the way to access an opening.

Blocking - Small, wood framing members.

Bond - Mortar bond between mortar and masonry units structural bond between widths; pattern bond for decorative effect.

Bored Deadlatch - A lock-fitting round bored openings in the face and edge of a door and having a deadlatch operated by a key or thumbturn, or both.

Bored Deadlock - A lock-fitting round bored openings in the face and edge of a door and having a deadbolt operated by a key or thumbturn, or both.

Bored Lock (or Bored Latch) - A lock or latch installed into a drilled or bored opening a door. As tubular or cylindrical lock. See Lock Function Char.

Box Strike - A strike containing a housing in the back to enclose the bolt opening in the frame. May be a separate piece from the strike. Metal frames usually have a box already built into the strike area to protect it from mortar and cement.

Bright Finish - A term used to describe builders' hardware that is polished and buffed to achieve a mirror-like surface.

Buffing - The process of providing a lustrous finish by means of power-operated soft fabric wheels coated with a wax compound containing fine, abrasive particles.

Build-up Beam - A beam constructed of smaller members fastened together with the grains parallel.

Builders' Hardware - All hardware used in building construction, both finish and rough See Architectural Hardware, Rough Hardware.

Building Line - An imaginary line on a plot beyond which a building may not extend.

Burnishing - The process of developing a smooth lustrous surface on metal parts by tumbling in a drum with small steel balls or by rubbing with hard metal pads.

Butt Hinge (or Butt) - A hinge mortised into both the door and frame.

Butt Weld - A weld of members butting against each other.

Button-in-Knob - An inside knob with a built-in-button that controls the locking and unlocking of the outside knob. May be either push button or turn button.

By-Pass - Doors, which slide past each other to access an opening.


Cabinet Locks - Includes a variety of applications such as school lockers, store display cases, panels, desk drawers, showcases, letter boxes, sliding doors, wardrobe doors, file cabinets, chests, luggage and trunks, metal boxes, cupboards and others.

Caulking - A waterproof material used to seal cracks.

Cam (of a cylinder) - A piece attached to the end of the cylinder plug. As the proper key turns the cylinder plug, the cam is rotated. This, in turn, moves the bolt or other locking mechanism.

Carbon Steel - An alloy of iron and carbon, with varying small proportions of other materials such as manganese, silicon and copper.

Carbon Steel - An alloy of iron and carbon, with varying small proportions of other materials such as manganese, silicon and copper.

Case Harden - To produce a hard surface layer on steel by a process of heating, then cooling the metal.

Case (of a lock) - The box containing the mechanism.

Casement - A window whose frame is hinged at the side.

Casing - The framing around a door or window.

Cavity Wall - A masonry wall having an air space of about 2".

Cement - A masonry material purchased in a form of a highly pulverized power, usually medium gray in color.

Center Pivot - A special type of hanging device for heavy-duty doors that usually swing both ways (double acting).

Center-to-Center - Measurement from the center of one member to the center of another.

Change Key - A key that operates an individual cylinder. Also called "day key" or " individual key."

Channel - A standard form of structure rolled steel, consisting of three sides at right angels in channel form.

Circuit - The path for an electric current.

Clearance - A space intentionally provided between building parts, either to facilitate operation or installation, to insure proper separation, to accommodate dimensional variations or for other reasons.

Cold Rolled - A term applied to metal sheet or plate that has been brought to final thickness and finish by being passed, unheated, between heavy rollers.

Column - A vertical supporting member.

Combination Locker Lock - Combines a combination dial with key operation, which permits the lock to operate either with the combination or master key.

Composite Wall - A masonry wall of at least two adjacent widths of different materials.

Compressive Strength - Resistance to a force ending to crush the material.

Concealed Hinge - A hinge so constructed that no parts are exposed when the door is closed.

Concrete - A masonry mixture of Portland cement, sand, aggregate and water in proper proportions.

Condensation - Water formed by warm, moist air contacting a cold surface.

Conduit - A pipe or trough that carries water, electrical wiring, cables and so forth.

Construction Master Key (CMK) - A key normally used by builder personnel for a temporary period during construction. It operates all key cylinders designated for its use. The owner permanently voids this key when he accepts the building or buildings form the contractor.

Continuous Hinge - A hinge designed to extend for the length of the moving part to which it is applied. Also called "piano hinge."

Control Joint - A joint to divert cracking in a masonry wall. Formed by raking mortar from a continuous vertical joint.

Coordinator - A device used on a pair of doors to insure that the inactive leaf closes first, before the active leaf. Necessary when an overlapping astragal is present, with certain exit device combinations and when automatic or self-latching bolts are used. Both door leaves must have closers.

Coping - A masonry cap on top of a wall to protect it from water penetration.

Core - The proportion of a mold used to form the hollow interior of a casting during the casting process.

Corner Bracket (Door Closer Bracket) - A bracket that is connected to a doorframe jamb and head at the upper hinge corner, to support an exposed overhead door closer.

Cornice - The part of a roof that extends or projects beyond the wall: the architectural treatment thereof, as a "box cornice."

Corrosion - The deterioration of metal by chemical or electrochemical action resulting from exposure to weather, moisture, chemicals or other agents. A form of oxidation.

Court - An open space surrounded partly or entirely by a building.

Crawl Space - The space between the floor joists and the surface below when there is no basement. This is used to make repairs on plumbing and other utilities.

Cremone Bolt - A device, of surface application, that by a turn of knob or lever handle locks the door or the sash into the frame top and bottom.

Cupola - A small structure built on top of a roof.

Curtain Wall - An exterior wall that provides no structural support.

Curved-Lip Strike - A strike with lip curved to conform to the detail of the door casing.

Cuts - An indentation or notch made in a key that enables it to turn. It may be either square or rounded. In tumbler locks, the cuts align the tumblers properly to allow the key to rotate. In warded locks, the cuts clear the wards and allow the key to rotate.

Cylinder - The part of a lock that contains the tumbler mechanism and keyway. The cylinder will permit only the correct key to enter and turn, thus operating the locking mechanism.

Mortise Cylinder - A cylinder with a threaded body and a cam. Normally used with mortise lock.

Rim Cylinder - Mounted through the door independently of the lock, usually by screws from the reverse side, and engaging the lock mechanism by means of tailpiece.

Cylinder Ring (or Cylinder Collar) - A collar or washer that fits snugly around the head of a cylinder. It enhances the appearance of the installation, and in some cases, protects the cylinder from tampering.

Cylinder Set Screw - The setscrew in the front of a lock that prevents the mortise cylinder from being removed after installation.

Cylindrical Lock - A type of bored lock. The locking mechanism is usually contained within a cylindrical case, and actuated by a cylinder and/or a button in the knob.


Deadbolt - A lock bolt having no spring action, usually rectangular in shape, which is operated by a key or turnknob. It is locked against end pressure when projected.

Deadlock - One having a deadbolt only.

Deadlocking Latchbolt - A spring-actuated latchbolt with a beveled end and incorporating a plunger that, when depressed, automatically locks the projected latchbolt against return by end pressure. See Auxiliary Deadlatch.

Dogging - Term used with exit devices. A mechanism that allows the latchbolt to remain in a retracted position thus permitting free push-pull operation of the door from either side. Cannot be used on fire-rated exit devices.

Door Buck - A door frame (usually Metal).

Door Closer (or Door Check) - A device attached at the top of the door, either on the surface or mortised, to regulate and control the operation of the door.

Door Holder - Used for fastening a door in selected open positions.

Door Pull - A handle or grip, commonly mounted on a plate, designed for attachment to a door to facilitate opening and closing.

Door Stop - A device to limit the opening swing of a door. Also, that part of a doorframe against which the door closes.

Double-Acting Spring Hinge - A device for hanging a door, permitting the door to swing in either direction and return to a closed position.

Double Egress - A pair of doors that are comprised of two single-acting doors swinging in opposite directions both doors being of the same hand.

Double Rabbet Frame - A doorframe having two rabbets.

Double-Acting Door - A door equipped with hardware that permits it to swing to either side of the plane of its frame.

Double-Hung Window - A window having top and bottom sashes, each capable of movement up and down in its own grooves.

Draftsman - A man or woman who draws plans using drafting instruments.

Drawing - The process of pulling metal in solid form through dies to alter its finish, mechanical properties of cross-sectional shape.

Drip - A molding designed to prevent rainwater from running down the face of a wall, or to protect the bottom of a door or window from leakage.

Drivers (or Top Pins) - The upper set of pins in a pin tumbler cylinder, which when activated by springs, projects into the plug until raised by insertion of the key to the proper shear line for operation.

Dry Wall - A wall finished with wallboard in place of plaster; stonewall built without mortar.

Duct - Sheet-metal conductor for air distribution.

Ductile - A term used to describe metals soft enough to be stretched, drawn or hammered without breaking.

Dummy Cylinder - One without operating mechanism, for use where effect is desired.

Dummy Trim - Trim only, without lock. Usually used on the inactive door of a pair of doors to give balance.

Duranodic - Trade name used by the Aluminum Co. of America for its hard anodic coatings. See Hard Anodic Coating.

Dutch Door - One having two separate leaves hung one over the other. Usually equipped so that both leaves can be operated as a single unit, or upper leaf can be opened independently.

Dutch Door Bolt - A device for locking together the upper and lower leaves of a Dutch door.


Eaves - The lower portion of a roof that extends beyond the wall.

Edge Plate - An angle-or channel-shaped guard used to protect the edge of a door.

Electroplating - The coating of metal by the action of an electric current passing through a chemical compound solution.

Element - Any number of basic substances (i.e. iron, copper, zinc and nickel) whose characteristics are determined by the structure of their atoms.

Electric Strike - An electrical device that replaces a regular lock strike and allows opening of the door from a remote location or by special access equipment.

Elevation - An orthographic projection of the vertical side of a building.

Embossed - Having a raised and/or indented pattern impressed on a surface by means of patterned rolls or stamping dies.

Escutcheon - An elongated plate, either protective or ornamental, contains openings for the cylinder, knob or thumbturn.

Etch - To produce a textured finish on metal or glass by corrosive action of an acid.

Excavation - A hole formed by removing earth.

Execution - That part of the specification that lays out a description of how the hardware should be handled. Includes marking of cartons, receiving and storage at the job site, installation, final adjustment and cleaning, and additional requirements. Also lists hardware sets as appropriate for the job.

Exit Device - A door-locking device designed to grant instant exit from an area by pressing on crossbar, which releases the locking bolt or latch.

Extension Bolt - A flush bolt in which the connection between bolt head and operating mechanism is by means of a rod inserted through a hole bored in the thickness of the door.

Extrusion - The process of producing metal shapes by forcing heated metal through an orifice in a die by means of a pressure ram; any item made by this process.


Facade - The front or face of a building.

Face (of a lock) - See Front.

Facing - Any material forming a part of a wall used as a finished surface.

Fast Pin Butt (Hinge) - A hinge in which the pin is fastened permanently in place, preventing separation of the two leaves.

Fatigue - Structural failure of a material caused by repeated application of stress.

Fenestration - The arrangement of windows in wall.

Ferrous - A term applied to materials containing iron.

Ferrous Metal - A metal containing or derived from iron.

Fiberboard - Sheet material of refined wood fibers.

Fiberglass - A material composed of thin glass threads used for insulation or with resin for a finished surface.

Filigree - Fine, decorative openwork.

Finish Hardware - See Architectural Finish Hardware.

Fire Stopping - Obstructions across air passages in buildings to prevent the spread of hot gases and flames; horizontal blocking between wall studs.

Fire Wall - A wall extending from foundation through the roof to subdivide a building in order to restrict the spread of fire.

Fireproofing - Any material protecting structural members to increase their fire resistance.

Flashing - The sheet metal work used to prevent leakage over windows and doors, around chimneys, and at the intersection of different wall surfaces and roof planes.

Flat Key - A thin, flat, stamped key, usually steel and usually having square-cut baiting on one or both sides.

Flat Key Locker Lock - Used to lock metal storage lockers in factories, schools or similar facilities.

Flat Lip Strike - A strike with a flat (non-curved) lip. May often be non-handed.

Floor Clearance - The size of the space between the bottom of a door and the finished floor.

Floor Closer - A door closing device that is installed in a recess in the floor below the door in order to regulate and control the opening and closing of the door.

Floor Plan - An orthographic projection of the floor of a building.

Flue - A passage in the chimney to convey smoke to the outer air.

Flush Bolt - A door bolt so designed that when installed it is flush with the face or edge of the door.

Foot Bolt - A bolt designed for attachment to the bottom of a door. Usually the bolt is controlled by a trigger, which holds the bolt against a spring. Release of the trigger permits the spring to move the bolt into the locking position.

Footing - The bases upon which the foundation and posts rest.

Forging - Shaping metal by impact of pressure. May be heated prior to shaping.

Formica - The trade name for a plastic veneer.

Foundation - The supporting wall of a building below the first floor level.

Framing - Lumber used for the structural framing of a building.

French Door - A door with glass panes throughout its length, usually with narrow stiles.

Friction Hinge - A hinge designed to swing a door and hold it at any desired position by means of friction control incorporated in the knuckles of the hinge.

Front (of a Lock) - That part of a lock visible in the edge of a door after installation.

Frost Line - The depth of frost penetration in soil.

Furring - Wood strips fastened to a wall or ceiling for the purpose of attaching wallboards or ceiling tile.


Gable - The triangular portion of an end wall formed by a sloping roof.

Galvanizing - The process of coating metal with zinc, either by dipping in a bath of molten zinc or by electrolytic action.

Gasketing - Certain items and equipment used for the control of environment, weather, sound, vision, smoke, etc.

Gate - A channel in a foundry mold through which the molten metal flows into the cavity made by the pattern.

Gauge - A number indicating the thickness of materials.

Grand Master Key (GMK) - A key that operates all of a large group of locks, which contain two or more master key groups.

Grout - Mortar of pouring consistency.

Gutter - A trough or depression for carrying off water.

Gypsum Board - Board made of plaster with a covering of paper (also called "plasterboard").


Hand - The term used to indicate the direction a door swings.

Handed Hardware - Locks, closers and other hardware, limited to use with doors that swing in a given direction.

Hard Anodic Coating - A coating provided on aluminum by an anodizing process, without the use of dyes or pigments. It provides a high resistance to abrasion and corrosion, and is produced in various shades of bronze and gray, as well as black.

Hardboard - Sheet material of compressed fibers.

Hardness - The measure of the resistance of a material to indentation, wear of abrasion.

Hardware Sets - A group of hardware listed in the specification, under execution, for a specific opening.

Hardwood - Wood from trees having broad leaves in contrast to needles. The term does not necessarily refer to the hardness of the wood.

Headroom - The vertical clearance in a room or on a stairway.

Hinge - Two jointed plates hinged together and attached to a door and its frame. Serves to support or "hang" the door and allows the door to swing or move.

Hinge Backset - Distance from back end of hinge to edge of inside door surface.

Hinge Jamb - Vertical member of door frame to which the hinges are applied.

Hinge Stile (of a door) - The door stile to which the hinges are applied.

Hinge Types - Classified according to installation method;

Half-Mortise - Hinge with one leaf mortised in a edge of the door, the other leaf mortised in the edge of the door, the other leaf secured to the surface of doorjamb.

Full Mortise - Hinge with one leaf mortised in the edge of the door, the door, the other leaf mortised in the doorjamb.

Half-Surface - Hinge with one leaf mortised in doorjamb, the other leaf secured to surface of door.

Full Surface - Hinge with one leaf secured to surface of door, the other leaf secured to surface of doorjamb.

Hip Roof - A roof with four sloping sides.

Horizontal Schedule - A scheduling of "detailed" doors, frames and hardware. Done in a horizontal format, similar to what is found as a door schedule on some architectural plans.

Hospital Tips - A scheduling of "detailed" doors, frames and hardware. Done in a horizontal format, similar to what is found as a door schedule on some architectural plans.

Hot Rolled - Shaping a heated form of metal between rollers.

Hot Working - The process of forming a metal at extremely high temperature.

Hotel Lock - A lock having special locking and access characteristics, especially designed for use in a hotel/motel.

Hub - The part of a lock through which a spindle passes (either knob or turnknob) to actuate the mechanism.


I-Beam - A steel beam with an I-shaped cross section.

Inactive Door - That leaf of a pair of doors that is bolted when closed and to which the lock strike is fastened to receive the latch of the active door.

Indicator - A device, usually an inward-or outward-moving button, used in connection with hotel locks to indicate whether room is occupied.

Inset - The distance from the face of the door to the face of the jamb.

Insulation - Material for obstructing passage of sound, heat or cold from one surface to another.

Interlocking Joint - A joint formed between sheet metal parts by engaging their edges, which have been pre-formed to provide a continuous splice.


Jalousie - A type of window consisting of a number of long, thin, hinged panels.

Jamb - The vertical member forming the side of a door, window or wall opening frame. The hinge jamb is the jamb at which the hinges or pivots are installed. The strike jamb is the jamb in which a strike may be installed and away from which the door or window swings. A blank jamb is one that has not been prepared to receive hardware.

Jamb Depth - The width of a jamb, measured perpendicular to the door or wall face at the edge of the opening.


Kalamein Door - A term used to describe doors, frames and trim with a metal covering over a wood core.

Kalcolor - The trade name used by Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corp. for its hard anodic coatings. See Hard Anodic Coating.

Keeper - Same as Strike.

Key Change - The baiting of a key to operate the lock for which it is intended.

Key Change Number - The recorded code or baiting number indicating the key change, usually stamped on key.

Key Section - The cross-sectional shape or configuration applied lengthwise to a key blade that may restrict its insertion into the lock mechanism through the keyway. Each key section is usually assigned a designation or code by the manufacturer. (This is usually shown as a cross-section view from the bow toward the tip of the key).

Key Set Symbols - The symbols that identify keying instructions from each lock in the schedule.

Key-in-the-Knob - A doorknob with built-in cylinder for locking and unlocking with a key.

Keyed Alike (KA) - A group of locks in which each is operated by the same change key.

Keying Schedule - A complete listing and explanation of all keys and keying requirements.

Keyway - The shape or configuration of the hole in the lock mechanism that allows only a key with the proper key section to enter.

Kick Plate - A protective plate applied on the lower rail of the door to protect against the door being marred.

Knob - That portion of the lock protruding from the door, it is grasped and turned for entry.

Knob Shank - The projecting stem of a knob into which the spindle is fastened.

Knocked Down - A term used in reference to any product that is shipped disassembled, for assembly at the building site, commonly abbreviated "KD".

Knuckle - The enlarged part of a hinge into which the pin is inserted.

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